- First- and Second- Generation Antipsychotics for Children and Young Adults [Entered Retrospectively]
- Methods: Two reviewers conducted study selection and quality assessment independently and resolved discrepancies by consensus. One reviewer extracted data, and a second reviewer verified the data. We conducted a descriptive analysis for all studies and performed metaanalyses when appropriate. Results: Eighty-one studies (64 trials and 17 cohort studies) examined the following conditions: pervasive developmental disorders (12 studies); attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or disruptive behavior disorders (8 studies); bipolar disorder (11 studies); schizophrenia and related psychosis (31 studies); Tourette syndrome (7 studies); behavioral issues (4 studies); and multiple conditions (9 studies). One study reported data on both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The majority of the trials had a high risk of bias. The methodological quality of the cohort studies was moderate. Results are presented by outcome below:
Symptoms: The strength of evidence for all head-to-head comparisons of FGAs and SGAs was low or insufficient to draw conclusions. SGAs were favored over placebo for behavior symptoms (ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders), the Clinical Global Impressions scale (ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia), positive and negative symptoms (schizophrenia), and tics (Tourette syndrome) (moderate strength of evidence). Other short- and long-term outcomes: All head-to-head comparisons had low or insufficient strength of evidence. There was no significant difference between SGAs and placebo for suicide related behaviors (moderate strength of evidence). The evidence was rated as insufficient to draw conclusions for health-related quality of life, involvement with the legal system, and other patient-, parent-, or care provider-reported outcomes for all conditions. Adverse events: All outcomes comparing FGAs with SGAs had low or insufficient strength of evidence. Outcomes comparing FGAs versus FGAs and FGAs versus placebo had insufficient evidence. Risperidone was favored over olanzapine for dyslipidemia; olanzapine was favored over risperidone for prolactin-related events; and both quetiapine and risperidone were favored over olanzapine for weight gain (moderate strength of evidence). For nearly all outcomes and comparisons, placebo resulted in significantly fewer adverse events than SGAs. Subpopulations: Thirty-six studies examined the association between various patient subpopulations and outcomes. Most concluded that the results did not differ by subpopulations, or findings were discordant across studies.
Conclusion: Evidence comparing FGAs with SGAs, various FGAs, and FGAs with placebo was very limited. Some SGAs appear to have a better side-effect profile than other SGAs. Compared with placebo, SGAs have better symptom improvement but more adverse events. Future high quality research examining head-to-head antipsychotic comparisons is needed.
- Authors of Report
- Methodology description
- We systematically searched the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations International, MedEffect Canada, and TOXLINE. The searches are up to date to February 2011. We limited the searches to studies published from 1987 or later to coincide with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III–Revised. We restricted the search results to studies published in the English language. We applied filters to restrict the results to children and young adults ≤24 years of age and to trials and cohort studies. We hand searched proceedings of the following scientific meetings that were identified by our clinical experts: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2007–2008), International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (2007–2009), and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (2007–2009). We searched clinical trial registers for ongoing studies and reference lists of relevant studies to identify additional studies. In addition, we contacted drug manufacturers to request published and unpublished study data. We reviewed FDA documents related to the eligible drugs to identify additional data.
Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts using broad inclusion criteria. We retrieved the full text of all articles identified as "include" or "unclear." Two reviewers independently assessed each article using a priori inclusion criteria and a standardized form. We resolved disagreements by consensus or third-party adjudication.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs), and cohort studies that examined a condition of interest (pervasive developmental disorders, ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related psychosis, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, or behavioral issues) in children or young adults ≤24 years of age were considered for inclusion. Eligible studies compared a FDA-approved FGA or SGA with any other antipsychotic or with placebo. Studies were required to report at least one outcome of interest including symptom improvement, other short- or long-term outcomes, or adverse events. No minimum follow-up duration was specified.
One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form, and a second reviewer verified the data for accuracy and completeness. We extracted information on study characteristics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, participant characteristics, interventions, and outcomes. Reviewers resolved discrepancies by consensus or in consultation with a third party.
- The systematic review data of this published project was retrospectively imported into SRDR by the Brown EPC on behalf of the Alberta EPC and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).
For access to the full report available on the AHRQ website, follow this link:http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?pageaction=displayproduct&productID=835
- Funding Source
- The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)