Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Health: An Evidence Map Database

Project Summary Title and Description

Title
Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Health: An Evidence Map Database
Description
Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS), also known as sugar substitutes, non-nutritive sweeteners, or artificial sweeteners, are ingredients added to foods and beverages to provide sweetness without adding a significant amount of calories. A large body of literature evidence exists on low-calorie sweeteners yet the health effects of LCS beyond body weight or composition remain unknown and have not been systematically reviewed. As evidence and interest on LCS continues to grow, there is the need to understand the potential effects of low-calorie sweeteners. LCS evidence map is a database that collects the features and characteristics of the LCS studies. (Paper PMID:26728979). LCS database includes data on study design (study design and duration), population (baseline health status, age, sample size, anthropometrics), intervention/comparison (type of LCS, comparisons or control groups, numbers of people analyzed, forms of administration), and outcomes/study endpoint. In addition, study aim/hypothesis and funding source were also collected. (LCS Manual and database Code book available through: http://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1186%2Fs12874-015-0105-z/MediaObjects/12874_2015_105_MOESM2_ESM.docx). Outcomes were also coded into clinically and biologically relevant outcome groups, classified by the research team and a stakeholder panel, to better describe data in the map (See Outcome Groups Table in the codebook). Database Objectives • Provide a database of existing literature on LCS and health outcomes. • Index key features and characteristics for quick summary report generation. • Help identify LCS and health effect of interest and identify gaps in LCS research • Systematically collect information to support further evidence synthesis
Attribution
N/A
Authors of Report
N/A
Methodology description
The goal of this Low-calorie sweetener evidence map is to provide existing low-calorie sweeteners studies readily in a database, describe the studies, and assist health researches in linking LCS to health outcomes efficiently. The following six areas of research regarding the potential effects of LCS were all considered and included: 1) energy sensing by the brain, 2) gut hormones that may influence energy homeostasis, 3) taste preference and satiety, 4) Dietary intake, and 5) body weight and composition.
PROSPERO
N/A
DOI
10.7301/Z0KK98PW
Notes
LCS Method Paper PMID: 26728979 Data was entered retrospectively
Funding Source
Supported by North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institutes (ILSI), Carbohydrates Committee. More information on Low-calorie sweeteners can be found at: http://www.ilsi.org/NorthAmerica/Pages/LowCalorieSweeteners.aspx.

Key Questions

1. What are the association between low-calorie sweeteners and health?

Associated Extraction Forms

Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

TitleAuthorsYear
Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load.2013
Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women.2014
Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.2014
Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.2013
Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.2012
Near-infrared imaging of the effects of glucose ingestion and regulation on prefrontal activation during dual-task execution in healthy fasting older Adults.2012
The effect of sugar-free versus sugar-sweetened beverages on satiety, liking and wanting: an 18 month randomized double-blind trial in Children.
Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink.2013
Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.2013
Effects of a D-xylose preload with or without sitagliptin on gastric emptying, glucagon-like peptide-1, and postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes.2013
A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in Children.
A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight.2012
Human sensory preconditioning in a flavor preference paradigm.2012
Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.2012
Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration.2012
Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: a controlled trial.2012
Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study.2011
Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.2011
Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.2011
Television viewing at mealtime reduces caloric compensation in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls.2011
The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.2010
Learned liking versus inborn delight: can sweetness give sensual pleasure or is it just motivating?2010
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting.2010
Assessing the palatability of oral rehydration solutions in school-aged Children: a randomized crossover trial.2010
Are caloric beverages compensated for in the short-term by young Adults? An investigation with particular focus on gender differences.
Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.
Use of aspartame by apparently healthy Children and adolescents.
Mutual action of taste and olfaction.1977
Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study.1977
Administration of aspartame in non-insulin-dependent diabetics.
Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy human subjects.1991
Soft drinks with aspartame: effect on subjective hunger, food selection, and food intake of young adult males.
The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness.1991
Responses to an intense sweetener in humans: immediate preference and delayed effects on intake.1991
Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake.1990
Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men.1990
Sensory/mixability preference evaluation of cholestyramine powder formulations.1990
Oral stimulation with aspartame increases hunger.1990
Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake.
Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.1989
Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods.
Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in Children.1989
Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects.1989
Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal Adults and Adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria.1987
Effects of sweetness perception and caloric value of a preload on short term intake.1983
The effects of equal caloric amounts of xylitol, sucrose and starch on insulin requirements and blood glucose levels in insulin-dependent diabetics.
Caloric regulation in normal-weight men maintained on a palatable diet of conventional foods.1982
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.1981
Molecular mechanism of sweet taste: relationship of hydrogen bonding to taste sensitivity for both young and elderly.1981
Sweetener preference among non-institutionalized older Adults.1995
Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.1995
Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration.1995
Treatment of porto-systemic encephalopathy with lactitol verus lactulose: a randomized controlled study.1995
Interaction of salivary flow with temporal perception of sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness.
The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.1994
Does type of milk beverage affect lunchtime eating patterns and food choice by preschool Children?1994
Effects of liquid preloads with different fructose/fibre concentrations on subsequent food intake and ratings of hunger in women.
The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in obese and lean women.1994
The effects of sucrose on everyday eating in normal weight men and women.1994
Adaptation of sweeteners in water and in tannic acid solutions.1994
Comparing the effects of aspartame and sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in humans.1994
Consuming aspartame with and without taste: differential effects on appetite and food intake of young adult males.
Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans.1993
Speed and consistency of human decisions to swallow or spit sweet and sour solutions.1992
Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.
Effects of context on sweet and bitter tastes: unrelated to sensitivity to PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil).1992
Time-quality tracking of monosodium glutamate, sodium saccharin, and a citric acid-saccharin mixture.1991
Similarity assessment and attribute scaling of sucrose and aspartame in grape drink.1990
Effects of aspartame and sucrose on hunger and energy intake in humans.1990
Lactitol vs. lactulose in the treatment of chronic recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy.1988
Comparison of the effects of aspartame and sucrose on appetite and food intake.
Use of aspartame to test the body weight set point" hypothesis."
An evaluation of the effect of aspartame on weight loss.1988
The effect of cooling on the perception of carbohydrate and intensive sweeteners.1988
Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweeteners on hunger and food intake.1988
Lactitol versus lactulose in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind, randomised, cross-over study.1987
Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight Adults.1987
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.1987
Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior, mood and arousal in men.1987
Comparison of aspartame- and fructose-sweetened layer cakes: importance of panels of users for evaluation of alternative sweeteners.1986
Collaborative WHO xylitol field studies in Hungary. II. General background and control of the dietary regimen.1985
Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.1985
Acceptability of aspartame- and saccharin-sweetened fruits to users and nonusers of artificial sweeteners.1985
Gustatory reaction time to various sweeteners in human Adults.1985
Human detectability thresholds for saccharin, sodium saccharin, and sodium chloride.1970
Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.1984
Palatability of sucrose-, sorbitol-, and saccharin-sweetened activated charcoal formulations.1980
The effect of age on the recognition thresholds of three sweeteners: sucrose, saccharin and aspartame.1994
Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects.2002
Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period.2007
Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in Adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.2012
Effects of aspartame in young persons during weight reduction.1976
Effect of sucrose on the metabolic disposition of aspartame.1990
Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight.
Xylitol vs glucose: effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release.1989
Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.1989
Sucrose versus saccharin as an added sweetener in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: short- and medium-term metabolic effects.1988
Effect of carbohydrate feeding frequencies and dosage on muscle glycogen use during exercise.1985
Postingestive inhibition of food intake by aspartame: importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating.1995
The effects of glucose on nonmemory cognitive functioning in the elderly.1996
Glycemic effect of a single high oral dose of the novel sweetener sucralose in patients with diabetes.1996
The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight.1997
The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters.1997
Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.1997
Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men.
Glucose-induced increase in memory performance in patients with schizophrenia.1999
Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.2000
The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects.2000
Genetic taste responses to 6-n-propylthiouracil among Adults: a screening tool for epidemiological studies.2001
Liquid meal replacements and glycemic control in obese type 2 diabetes patients.2001
Differential effects of glucose on modulation of emotional and nonemotional spatial memory tasks.2002
Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety.2003
Sweeteners and beta-glucans improve metabolic and anthropometrics variables in well controlled type 2 diabetic patients.2003
Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes.2003
Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake.2003
Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects.2003
Effects of isomalt consumption on gastrointestinal and metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers.2005
Attenuated response of the serum triglyceride concentration to ingestion of a chocolate containing polydextrose and lactitol in place of sugar.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories.2005
Effects of hunger state on flavour pleasantness conditioning at home: flavour-nutrient learning vs. flavour-flavour learning.2006
Artificially sweetened versus regular mixers increase gastric emptying and alcohol absorption.2006
Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion.2007
Additive effects of flavour-caffeine and flavour-flavour pairings on liking for the smell and flavour of a novel drink.2007
Chronic consumption of rebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside, in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.2008
Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation?
Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity.2009
Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.2009
Reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses following isomaltulose ingestion: implications for postprandial substrate use.2009
Manipulation of glycemic response with isomaltulose in a milk-based drink does not affect cognitive performance in healthy Adults.2010
Modified sham feeding of sweet solutions in women with anorexia nervosa.2010
Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.2010
Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects.2011
No observable differences in glycemic response to maltitol in human subjects from 3 ethnically diverse groups.
Postprandial substrate use in overweight subjects with the metabolic syndrome after isomaltulose (Palatinoseâ„¢) ingestion.
Effects of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes.2012
Metabolic effects of replacing sucrose by isomaltulose in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind trial.2012
Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects.1991
Further analysis of the short-term inhibition of food intake in humans by the dipeptide L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame).1991
The neuropsychiatric effects of aspartame in normal volunteers.1990
Paradoxical effects of an intense sweetener (aspartame) on appetite.1986
Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients.1988
Effect of glucose polymer diet supplement on responses to prolonged successive swimming, cycling and running.1988
Sorbitol as a sweetener in the diet of insulin-dependent diabetes.1987
Aspartame use by persons with diabetes.1985
Carbohydrate ingestion before exercise: comparison of glucose, fructose, and sweet placebo.1981
Effects of carbohydrate intake on subsequent food intake and mood state.1995
Fructans of chicory: intestinal transport and fermentation of different chain lengths and relation to fructose and sorbitol malabsorption.
Sweet taste of aspartame and sucrose: effects on diet-induced thermogenesis.2000
The comparative gastrointestinal responses of Children and Adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC.
Glucose effects on a continuous performance test of attention in Adults.2003
Effects of an osmotically active agent on colonic transit.2006
Gastrointestinal tolerance of erythritol and xylitol ingested in a liquid.
Muscle metabolic, SR Ca(2+) -cycling responses to prolonged cycling, with and without glucose supplementation.2007
Influence of artificial sweetener on human blood glucose concentration.2007
Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation.2009
Safer glycemic control using isomaltulose-based enteral formula: a pilot randomized crossover trial.2009
Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose).2010
Dessert formulation using sucralose and dextrin affects favorably postprandial response to glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in type 2 diabetic patients2013
Ingestion of diet soda before a glucose load augments glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.2009
Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.
A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness and tolerability of oral stevioside in humanhypertension.2000
Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans.1986
Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension.2006
Metabolism of stevioside by healthy subjects.2007
Efficacy and tolerability of oral stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension: a two-year, randomized,placebo-controlled study.2003
Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration ofaspartame in diabetics.1986
Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks' sucrose-rich diet compared to anartificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial.2011
Effects of aspartame on diabetic rats and diabetic patients.1985
Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise.2012
Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjectsbut not in patients with type 2 diabetes.2014
Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasmaconcentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin.1990
Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized,controlled pilot study.2006
Extended use of foods modified in fat and sugar content: nutritional implications in a free-living female population1997
The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss during a 12-week weight losstreatment program.
Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption innormal adults.
Effect of sugars in solutions on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9- to 14-year-old normal weightboys.2014
The effects of sugar-free vs sugar-rich beverages on feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake.2000
Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men.2001
Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake.2011
Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss.1997
Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d.
The effects of sucrose and maize oil on subsequent food intake and mood.
Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference?2007
Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.2007
Effect of short-duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys.2007
Investigation of the Tolerability of Oral Stevioside in Brazilian Hyperlipidemic Patients
Mutual action of taste and olfaction.1
Mutual action of taste and olfaction.2
The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness.1
The effectiveness of different sweeteners in suppressing citric acid sourness.21991
Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake.1
Aspartame ingested without tasting inhibits hunger and food intake.2
Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.1
Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.2
Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in Children.1
Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in Children.2
Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal Adults and Adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria.1
Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal Adults and Adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria.2
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.1
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.2
Multiple receptor sites mediate sweetness: evidence from cross adaptation.3
Molecular mechanism of sweet taste: relationship of hydrogen bonding to taste sensitivity for both young and elderly.1
Molecular mechanism of sweet taste: relationship of hydrogen bonding to taste sensitivity for both young and elderly.21981
Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.1
Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.2
The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.1
The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.2
Effects of liquid preloads with different fructose/fibre concentrations on subsequent food intake and ratings of hunger in women.1
Effects of liquid preloads with different fructose/fibre concentrations on subsequent food intake and ratings of hunger in women.2
Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight Adults.1
Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight Adults.2
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.1
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.2
Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake.3
Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.1
Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.21985
Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration.1
Overweight and obese boys reduce food intake in response to a glucose drink but fail to increase intake in response to exercise of short duration.2
The comparative gastrointestinal responses of Children and Adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC.1
The comparative gastrointestinal responses of Children and Adults following consumption of sweets formulated with sucrose, isomalt and lycasin HBC.22002
Investigation of the Tolerability of Oral Stevioside in Brazilian Hyperlipidemic Patients
Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration ofaspartame in diabetics.1
Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration ofaspartame in diabetics.21986

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