Interventions to Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia [Entered Retrospectively]

Project Summary Title and Description

Interventions to Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia [Entered Retrospectively]
This review assessed evidence for interventions aimed at preventing or delaying the onset of age-related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia (CATD).
Authors of Report
Methodology description
Two investigators screened abstracts and full-text articles of identified references. Eligible studies included randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental observational studies published to September, 2016, enrolling people with normal cognition and/or MCI. We extracted data, assessed risk of bias, summarized results for studies without high risk of bias, and evaluated strength of evidence for studies with sufficient sample size. Cognitive outcomes were grouped into domains to facilitate analysis; strength of evidence was assessed by MCI or CATD incidence, and cognitive outcome domain.
For study data, please see Uploaded Document(s) located in the Downloadable Content of this project.
Funding Source
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (Contract No. 290-2015-00008-I)

Key Questions

1. KQ 1: In adults with normal cognition, what are the effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and harms of interventions for: i. Delaying or slowing age-related cognitive decline? ii. Preventing, slowing, or delaying the onset of MCI? iii. Preventing, slowing, or delaying the onset of clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia? a. Do effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and harms of interventions differ as a function of patient characteristics (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, family history, education, socio-economic status, risk factor status)?
2. KQ 2: In adults with MCI, what are the effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and harms of interventions for preventing, slowing, or delaying the onset of clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia? a. Do effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and harms of interventions differ as a function of patient characteristics (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, family history, education, socio-economic status, risk factor status)?
3. KQ 3: What is the strength of association between outcome measures examined in KQs 1 or 2 including (but not limited to) cognitive test results, biomarkers, and brain imaging results and the incidence of MCI or clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia?

Associated Extraction Forms

Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Results of a follow-up study to the randomized Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT).2013
Naproxen and celecoxib do not prevent AD in early results from a randomized controlled trial.2007
Cognitive function over time in the Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT): results of a randomized, controlled trial of naproxen and celecoxib.2008
Estrogen + progestin therapy and cognition: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.2010
Renin-angiotensin system blockade and cognitive function in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: analysis of data from the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies.2011
Partial maintenance of auditory-based cognitive training benefits in older adults.2014
Cognitive function after supplementation with B vitamins and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: ancillary findings from the SU.FOL.OM3 randomized trial.2011
Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.2013
Impact of the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension on behavioral variables. Results from the systolic hypertension in the elderly program.1994
Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.2010
Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: a controlled trial.2010
Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: a randomized controlled trial.2002
Effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognitive performance in elderly women.2001
Treating hypertension in the older person: an evaluation of the association of blood pressure level and its reduction with cognitive performance.1990
Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women.1991
Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.
Working memory training in older adults: evidence of transfer and maintenance effects.2010
Putting brain training to the test in the workplace: a randomized, blinded, multisite, active-controlled trial.2013
Homocysteine lowering and cognition in CKD: the Veterans Affairs homocysteine study.2009
Extended results of the Alzheimer's disease anti-inflammatory prevention trial.2011
Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet on mood and cognitive function.2009
Individualized piano instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults.2007
A randomized, two-year study of the efficacy of cognitive intervention on elderly people: the Donostia Longitudinal Study.2008
Long-term observation of a multicomponent cognitive intervention in mild cognitive impairment.2012
Impact of working memory training on memory performance in old-old adults.2008
Exploring the effects of an "everyday" activity program on executive function and memory in older adults: Experience Corps.2008
Health-related quality of life and long-term therapy with pravastatin and tocopherol (vitamin E) in older adults.2002
Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.2006
The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly.2007
Long-term effects of provided low and high glycemic load low energy diets on mood and cognition.2009
The effects of multi-domain versus single-domain cognitive training in non-demented older people: a randomized controlled trial.2012
Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Lutein/Zeaxanthin, or Other Nutrient Supplementation on Cognitive Function: The AREDS2 Randomized Clinical Trial.
The Agewell trial: a pilot randomised controlled trial of a behaviour change intervention to promote healthy ageing and reduce risk of dementia in later life.2015
Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in promoting the well-being of independently living older people: results of the Well Elderly 2 Randomised Controlled Trial.2012
Postmenopausal hormone therapy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease: the WHIMS-MRI Study.
Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans.2006
The Effect of an Online Cognitive Training Package in Healthy Older Adults: An Online Randomized Controlled Trial.
Effects of basal insulin glargine and omega-3 fatty acid on cognitive decline and probable cognitive impairment in people with dysglycaemia: a substudy of the ORIGIN trial.2014
Effect of 2-y n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function in older people: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.2010
Continuous-combined oral estradiol/drospirenone has no detrimental effect on cognitive performance and improves estrogen deficiency symptoms in early postmenopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.2013
Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.
Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial.2008
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil for the treatment of menopause-related cognitive loss.2007
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline.
Donepezil treatment of patients with MCI: a 48-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial.2009
Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment.2013
Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial.2007
Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory.2011
Long-term effects of conjugated equine estrogen therapies on domain-specific cognitive function: results from the Women's Health Initiative study of cognitive aging extension.2010
Conjugated equine estrogens and global cognitive function in postmenopausal women: Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.
Long-term effects on cognitive function of postmenopausal hormone therapy prescribed to women aged 50 to 55 years.
Relative effects of tamoxifen, raloxifene, and conjugated equine estrogens on cognition.
Improving cognition by adherence to physical or mental exercise: a moderated mediation analysis.2011
Effect of rivastigmine on delay to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease from mild cognitive impairment: the InDDEx study.2007
Respiratory training as strategy to prevent cognitive decline in aging: a randomized controlled trial.
The Study of Mental and Resistance Training (SMART) study—resistance training and/or cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, double-sham controlled trial.2014
Influence of losartan and atenolol on memory function in very elderly hypertensive patients.2003
Effect of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide vs lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination on ambulatory blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly hypertensive patients.2006
The prevention of dementia with antihypertensive treatment: new evidence from the Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study.
Prevention of dementia in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial.1998
Disease-modifying properties of long-term lithium treatment for amnestic mild cognitive impairment: randomised controlled trial.2011
Effects of a 6-month cognitive intervention on brain metabolism in patients with amnestic MCI and mild Alzheimer's disease.2011
Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in mild cognitive impairment with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial.
Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients.2012
A preliminary study of the safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone supplements in older men and women.2009
Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study.2015
Treatment of hypertension in the elderly: II. Cognitive and behavioral function. Results of a Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study.1990
Estrogen replacement therapy and cognitive functions in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.2011
Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cognitive function: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study.2002
Long-term multivitamin supplementation and cognitive function in men: a randomized trial.2013
Effects of treatment for isolated systolic hypertension on cognitive status and depression in the elderly.1988
Antihypertensive therapy and cerebral hemodynamics in executive mild cognitive impairment: results of a pilot randomized clinical trial.2013
Effect of music-based multitask training on cognition and mood in older adults.2014
MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.2002
Long-term soy isoflavone supplementation and cognition in women: a randomized, controlled trial.2012
Cognitive effects of estradiol after menopause: A randomized trial of the timing hypothesis.2016
Positive effects of computer-based cognitive training in adults with mild cognitive impairment.2012
Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.-- Not Found --
Differential cognitive effects of cycling versus stretching/coordination training in middle-aged adults.2012
The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on cognitive function in postmenopausal women.2004
Longitudinal MRI findings from the vitamin E and donepezil treatment study for MCI.2008
The ACTIVE cognitive training interventions and trajectories of performance among older adults.
A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
A randomized trial of vitamin E supplementation and cognitive function in women.-- Not Found --
Low dose aspirin and cognitive function in the women's health study cognitive cohort.2007
Vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, and cognitive function among women with or at risk of cardiovascular disease: The Women's Antioxidant and Cardiovascular Study.2009
Effects of transdermal testosterone on cognitive function and health perception in older men with low bioavailable testosterone levels.2002
French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial.2011
Complex mental and physical activity in older women and cognitive performance: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.
Intensive multifactorial treatment and cognitive functioning in screen-detected type 2 diabetes--the ADDITION-Netherlands study: a cluster-randomized trial.2012
Ageing, fitness and neurocognitive function.1999
Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.2004
Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the SOy and Postmenopausal Health In Aging (SOPHIA) Study.-- Not Found --
Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on cognitive function and quality of life: the DHEA and Well-Ness (DAWN) Trial.2008
Effectiveness of cognitive training in Chinese older people with subjective cognitive complaints: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.2013
The effects of strength training on memory in older adults.2006
A 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing mind body exercise (Tai Chi) with stretching and toning exercise on cognitive function in older Chinese adults at risk of cognitive decline.2012
Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy.2011
Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial.2008
Effects of functional tasks exercise on older adults with cognitive impairment at risk of Alzheimer's disease: a randomised controlled trial.2014
Effects of a multidomain lifestyle modification on cognitive function in older adults: an eighteen-month community-based cluster randomized controlled trial.2014
Docosahexaenoic acid-concentrated fish oil supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2013
Effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene on memory and other cognitive abilities: cognition in the study of tamoxifen and raloxifene.2009
Association of Long-Term Dietary Fat Intake, Exercise, and Weight with Later Cognitive Function in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.2016
A double-blind, randomized clinical trial of dietary supplementation on cognitive and immune functioning in healthy older adults.
The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE): principal results of a randomized double-blind intervention trial.2003
Otago home-based strength and balance retraining improves executive functioning in older fallers: a randomized controlled trial.2008
Resistance training and executive functions: a 12-month randomized controlled trial.2010
Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.
Improved diabetes control in the elderly delays global cognitive decline.2011
Improving aerobic capacity in healthy older adults does not necessarily lead to improved cognitive performance.1989
Effect of low dose ω-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on cognitive status among older people: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.
Effects of botanicals and combined hormone therapy on cognition in postmenopausal women.-- Not Found --
Examination of cognitive function during six months of calorie restriction: results of a randomized controlled trial.2007
Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial.2013
Virgin olive oil supplementation and long-term cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized, trial.2013
Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.2014
Differential benefits of memory training for minority older adults in the SeniorWISE study.2010
A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance.2006
Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation on cognitive function in men and women aged 65 years and over: a randomised controlled trial.
Effect of a computerized brain exercise program on cognitive performance in older adults.
Effects of testosterone and estrogen replacement on memory function.-- Not Found --
Effect of estrogen and testosterone replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue.2013
Cognitive stimulation in a-MCI: an experimental study.2012
Changes in brain volume and cognition in a randomized trial of exercise and social interaction in a community-based sample of non-demented Chinese elders.2012
Effects of lovastatin on cognitive function and psychological well-being.2000
Randomized trial of the effects of simvastatin on cognitive functioning in hypercholesterolemic adults.2004
Chronic endurance exercise training prevents aging-related cognitive decline in healthy older adults: a randomized controlled trial.
Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment.2012
Effect of weight loss, exercise, or both on cognition and quality of life in obese older adults.2014
Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month double-blind pilot clinical trial.2012
A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial.2015
A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese.2012
Raloxifene hydrochloride, a selective estrogen receptor modulator: safety assessment of effects on cognitive function and mood in postmenopausal women.
Randomized, controlled, six-month trial of yoga in healthy seniors: effects on cognition and quality of life.-- Not Found --
Effects of exercise on neurobehavioral function in community-dwelling older people more than 75 years of age.1996
Cognitive function variations in postmenopausal women treated with continuous, combined HRT or tibolone. A comparison.2003
Effects of atorvastatin on higher functions.2006
The effects of cognitive training on community-dwelling elderly Koreans.2009
Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial.2007
The effect of 3-year treatment with 0.25 mg/day of micronized 17beta-estradiol on cognitive function in older postmenopausal women.2007
The effects of propranolol on cognitive function and quality of life: a randomized trial among patients with diastolic hypertension.2000
A combination of galantamine and memantine modifies cognitive function in subjects with amnestic MCI.2012
Incident dementia and blood pressure lowering in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial cognitive function assessment (HYVET-COG): a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.2008
Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment.2005
Effects of donepezil on cortical activation in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial using functional MR imaging.2009
Is the cognitive function of older patients affected by antihypertensive treatment? Results from 54 months of the Medical Research Council's trial of hypertension in older adults.1996
Memory enhancement training for older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study.2002
Effect of estrogen plus progestin on global cognitive function in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial.2003
Prospective randomized trial to assess effects of continuing hormone therapy on cerebral function in postmenopausal women at risk for dementia.
Ten-year effects of the advanced cognitive training for independent and vital elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults.2014
Memory training in the ACTIVE study: how much is needed and who benefits?
Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on cognition and affect in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy.2009
Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.2009
Effects of combination estrogen plus progestin hormone treatment on cognition and affect.2006
Maintenance treatment of depression in old age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy and safety of donepezil combined with antidepressant pharmacotherapy.2011
Efficacy of a cognitive intervention program in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
Psychomotor speed and functional brain MRI 2 years after completing a physical activity treatment.2010
Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and cognitive impairment in the women's health initiative.2012
Physical activity and memory functions: an interventional study.2011
Efficacy of donepezil in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.2004
Effect of pharmacologic lipid lowering on health-related quality of life in older persons: results from the Cholesterol Reduction in Seniors Program (CRISP) Pilot Study.1997
Combination of antihypertensive therapy in the elderly, multicenter investigation (CAMUI) trial: results after 1 year.2013
The effects of physical exercise with music on cognitive function of elderly people: Mihama-Kiho project.2014
Candesartan and cognitive decline in older patients with hypertension: a substudy of the SCOPE trial.2008
Analysing Time to Event Data in Dementia Prevention Trials: The Example of the GuidAge Study of EGb761.2015
Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.2009
An MRI substudy of a donepezil clinical trial in mild cognitive impairment.2011
Effect of thiazolidinediones and insulin on cognitive outcomes in ACCORD-MIND.-- Not Found --
Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group.1991
Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial.2002
Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.2004
Effect of a 24-Month Physical Activity Intervention vs Health Education on Cognitive Outcomes in Sedentary Older Adults: The LIFE Randomized Trial.2015
Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.2012
The influence of cognitive training on older adults' recall for short stories.2013
Effect of baseline cognitive function and antihypertensive treatment on cognitive and cardiovascular outcomes: Study on COgnition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE).2005
Effects of computer training and internet usage on cognitive abilities in older adults: a randomized controlled study.2009
Cognitive and cerebral metabolic effects of celecoxib versus placebo in people with age-related memory loss: randomized controlled study.2008
Exercise, fitness, and neurocognitive function in older adults: the "selective improvement" and "cardiovascular fitness" hypotheses.2008
Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.
Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial.
Long-term enhancement of brain function and cognition using cognitive training and brain stimulation.2013
Differential cognitive outcomes in the Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh study.2005
The effects of antihypertensive treatment on cognitive function: results from the HOPE study.1996
Training versus engagement as paths to cognitive enrichment with aging.2014
DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial.
Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease.2005
A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Multinutrient Supplement Benefits Cognition and Mobility in Older Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study.2016
Self-relaxation training can improve sleep quality and cognitive functions in the older: a one-year randomised controlled trial.2013
A randomized controlled trial of multicomponent exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.2012
Cognitive function in elderly can be ameliorated by training in temporal information processing.2012
Effects of Tai Chi and Western exercise on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy community-dwelling older adults.2010
Comparison of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide on cognitive function and quality of life in hypertensive patients.1999
Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in older women with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.2015
One-year cholesterol lowering treatment reduces medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory decline in stroke-free elderly with atrial fibrillation: evidence from a parallel group randomized trial.2012
A randomized, double-blind, study of rofecoxib in patients with mild cognitive impairment.2005
A randomized double-blind trial of the effects of hormone therapy on delayed verbal recall in older women.2009
Pravastatin and cognitive function in the elderly. Results of the PROSPER study.2010
ACTIVE cognitive training and rates of incident dementia.2012
Effect of memory impairment on training outcomes in ACTIVE.2007
The effects of cognitive speed of processing training among older adults with psychometrically- defined mild cognitive impairment.2012
Mediterranean Diet and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2015
Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial.2008
Effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.-- Not Found --
Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance: secondary data from an RCT.2014
The impact of protein supplementation on cognitive performance in frail elderly.2014
Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial.2008
Exogenous testosterone alone or with finasteride does not improve measurements of cognition in healthy older men with low serum testosterone.-- Not Found --
Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.2012
Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial.2012
Effects of group exercise on cognitive functioning and mood in older women.1997
Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: results of the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study.2009
Cognitive function and brain structure in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus after intensive lowering of blood pressure and lipid levels: a randomized clinical trial.2014
Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults.2006
Safety and efficacy of galantamine in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.2008
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.2014
Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults.2014
Speed of processing training protects self-rated health in older adults: enduring effects observed in the multi-site ACTIVE randomized controlled trial.2010
A randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a visual speed of processing intervention in middle aged and older adults.2013
Does cognitive training improve internal locus of control among older adults?2010
Cognitive performance in relation to vitamin status in healthy elderly German women-the effect of 6-month multivitamin supplementation.2005
Effect of an enriched drink on cognitive function in frail elderly persons.2005
Impact of antioxidants, zinc, and copper on cognition in the elderly: a randomized, controlled trial.2004
Effect of raloxifene on prevention of dementia and cognitive impairment in older women: the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) randomized trial.2005
Cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene.2001
Effects of ultra-low-dose transdermal estradiol on cognition and health-related quality of life.2006
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in combination with cognitive training in older adults.2008
Quality of life in normotensives compared to hypertensive men treated with isradipine or methyldopa as monotherapy or in combination with captopril: the LOMIR-MCT-IL study.1996
Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline.2010
The effect of antioxidant vitamins E and C on cognitive performance of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment in Isfahan, Iran: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. 2014
Effects of a physical fitness program on memory and blood viscosity in sedentary elderly men.2015
Follow-up evaluation of cognitive function in the randomized Alzheimer's disease anti-inflammatory prevention trial and its follow-up study.2015
A combination of supplements may reduce the risk of alzheimer's disease in elderly japanese with normal cognition2015
Testosterone Treatment of Men With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Low Testosterone Levels.
Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up.2015
Potential of preventive treatment of Alzheimer's disease: Results of a three-year prospective open comparative trial of the efficacy and safety of courses of treatment with cerebrolysin and Cavinton in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment syndrome. 2011
Effects of pioglitazone or exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and insulin resistance: A pilot study. 2015
A preliminary randomized controlled trial of multifaceted educational intervention for mild cognitive impairment among elderly Malays in Kuala Lumpur. 2014
Would older adults with mild cognitive impairment adhere to and benefit from a structured lifestyle activity intervention to enhance cognition?: A cluster randomized controlled trial.2015
Metformin in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Results of a pilot randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.2006
Physical activity improves verbal and spatial memory in older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month randomized controlled trial. 2013
Omega-3 fatty acid status enhances the prevention of cognitive decline by B Vitamins in mild cognitive impairment.2015
The effect of galantamine on brain atrophy rate in subjects with mild cognitive impairment is modified by apolipoprotein e genotype: Post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial.2014
A Nutritional Formulation for Cognitive Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Placebo-Controlled Trial with an Open-Label Extension.2015
Effects of a group program to increase cognitive performance through cognitively stimulating leisure activities in healthy older subjects. 2011
The PACE study: A randomized clinical trial of cognitive activity strategy training for older people with mild cognitive impairment.
Cognitive Effects of Hormone Therapy Continuation or Discontinuation in a Sample of Women at Risk for Alzheimer Disease. 2015
Gains in language comprehension relating to working memory training in healthy older adults. 2013
The influence of multivitamins on cognitive function and mood in the elderly.2000
Exercise, fitness and cognition–A randomised controlled trial in older individuals: The DR's EXTRA study2010
The timecourse of global cognitive gains from supervised computer-assisted cognitive training: a randomised, active-controlled trial in elderly with multiple dementia risk factors2004
Differential effects of single versus combined cognitive and physical training with older adults: the SimA study in a 5-year perspective.2006
Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial.2003
Anti-oxidant vitamins and mental performance of the elderly. 1999
Long-term effects of resistance exercise training on cognition and brain volume in older women: Results from a randomized controlled trial.2015
Group- and home-based cognitive intervention for patients with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial.2016
Early postmenopausal transdermal 17beta-estradiol therapy and amyloid-beta deposition.2016
Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.2010
Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, Parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment. 2016
Effectiveness of a 6-year multidomain vascular care intervention to prevent dementia (preDIVA): A cluster-randomised controlled trial. 2016
Cognitive stimulation of executive functions in mild cognitive impairment: Specific efficacy and impact in memory. 2015

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