Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents

Project Summary Title and Description

Title
Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents
Description
Objectives. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common pediatric neurobehavioral disorder often treated in the primary care setting. This systematic review updates and extends two previous systematic evidence reviews and focuses on the comparative effectiveness of methods to establish the diagnosis of ADHD, updates the comparative effectiveness of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, and evaluates different monitoring strategies in the primary care setting for individuals from birth through 17 years of age. Data sources. We searched PubMed®, Embase®, PsycINFO® and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant English-language studies published from January 1, 2011, through November 7, 2016. Review methods. Two investigators screened each abstract and full-text article for inclusion, abstracted the data, and performed quality ratings and evidence grading. Random-effects models were used to compute summary estimates of effects when sufficient data were available for meta-analysis.
Attribution
N/A
Authors of Report
N/A
Methodology description
We searched MEDLINE® (via PubMed), Embase®, PsycINFO®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), limiting the search to studies conducted in children 17 years of age and younger and published from January 1, 2009, to November 7, 2016. Two investigators screened each abstract and full-text article for inclusion, abstracted the data, and performed quality ratings and evidence grading. Random-effects models were used to compute summary estimates of effects. See the review protocol (https://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/616/2148/ADHD-Update-protocol-160818.pdf) for full details.
PROSPERO
CRD42016029134
DOI
10.26300/mq1d-xw25
Notes
This project was entered retrospectively. All Data Abstraction is available in the attached file: ADHD_SRDR File_Final 20170824.xlsx
Funding Source
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

Key Questions

1. For the diagnosis of ADHD: a. What is the comparative diagnostic accuracy of approaches that can be used in the primary care practice setting or by specialists to diagnose ADHD among individuals younger than 7 years of age? b. What is the comparative diagnostic accuracy of EEG, imaging, or approaches assessing executive function that can be used in the primary care practice setting or by specialists to diagnose ADHD among individuals aged 7 through 17? c. For both populations, how does the comparative diagnostic accuracy of these approaches vary by clinical setting, including primary care or specialty clinic, or patient subgroup, including age, sex, or other risk factors associated with ADHD? d. What are the adverse effects associated with being labeled correctly or incorrectly as having ADHD?
2. What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of pharmacologic and/or nonpharmacologic treatments of ADHD in improving outcomes associated with ADHD? How do these outcomes vary by presentation (inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, and combined) or other comorbid conditions? What is the risk of diversion of pharmacologic treatment?
3. What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of different monitoring strategies to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment or changes in ADHD status (e.g., worsening or resolving symptoms)?

Associated Extraction Forms

Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

TitleAuthorsYear
Clinical usefulness of the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule in the diagnosis of DBD and ADHD in preschool children.2013
Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?2010
Objective measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.2010
Can computerized cognitive tests assist in the clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?2012
Stigmatizing experiences of parents of children with a new diagnosis of ADHD.2010
Examination of neurological subtle signs in ADHD as a clinical tool for the diagnosis and their relationship to spatial working memory.2012
Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling as a neurophysiological marker of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.2015
The utility of quantitative electroencephalography and Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test as auxiliary tools for the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis.2015
The Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory (ATTEX): Psychometric properties and clinical utility in diagnosing ADHD subtypes.2010
Diagnostic value of resting electroencephalogram in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan.2013
Quantitative EEG in Children and Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Comparison of Absolute and Relative Power Spectra and Theta/Beta Ratio.2017
Nonlinear analysis of actigraphic signals for the assessment of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).2012
The quantitative EEG theta/beta ratio in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and normal controls: sensitivity, specificity, and behavioral correlates.2012
Teachers' and education students' perceptions of and reactions to children with and without the diagnostic label "ADHD".2011
Clinical Use of Continuous Performance Tests to Diagnose Children With ADHD.2016
Quantitative MR analysis of caudate abnormalities in pediatric ADHD: proposal for a diagnostic test.2010
Is the test of variables of attention reliable for the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?2012
Screening for the ADHD Phenotype Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Clinical Sample of Newly Referred Children and Adolescents.2014
Evaluation of feature extraction techniques on event-related potentials for detection of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.2010
New marker using bioimpedance technology in screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children as an adjunct to conventional diagnostic methods.2011
Performance analysis of univariate and multivariate EEG measurements in the diagnosis of ADHD.2013
Parent training for preschool ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs.2015
Remediating organizational functioning in children with ADHD: immediate and long-term effects from a randomized controlled trial.2013
Effect of Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids Administration on Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016
Cardiovascular measures in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who are new users of methylphenidate and atomoxetine.2012
Zinc for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial alone and combined with amphetamine.2011
Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms.
Health-related quality of life and functional outcomes from a randomized-withdrawal study of long-term lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.2014
Efficacy and Safety of Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids, Methylphenidate, and a Combined Treatment in Children With ADHD.2017
A controlled trial of working memory training for children and adolescents with ADHD.2010
Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.
Two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD: the value of planning skills.2015
Atomoxetine versus OROS methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A six-month follow up study for efficacy and adverse effects.2015
A randomized clinical trial of Cogmed Working Memory Training in school-age children with ADHD: a replication in a diverse sample using a control condition.2014
Atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combination therapy for the treatment of ADHD: a retrospective chart review study.2015
Safety of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data from the Italian National ADHD Registry.2015
Improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: training multiple executive functions within the context of a computer game. a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial.
One-year prospective follow-up of pharmacological treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.2011
Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports.2012
A study of evaluation of safety and efficacy of memomet, a multi herbal formulation (memomet) in the treatment of behavioural disorder in children2012
Few effects of far transfer of working memory training in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.
No beneficial effects of adding parent training to methylphenidate treatment for ADHD + ODD/CD children: a 1-year prospective follow-up study.2014
Evaluation of a school-based treatment program for young adolescents with ADHD.2016
A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of a Psychoeducation Program for Families of Children and Adolescents With ADHD in the United Kingdom: Results After a 6-Month Follow-Up.
Clinical response and symptomatic remission in children treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2010
Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016
Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial.2009
EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD.2010
Efficacy of Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) Occupational Therapy Intervention Among Children With ADHD: An RCT.2016
Do Stimulants Reduce the Risk for Alcohol and Substance Use in Youth With ADHD? A Secondary Analysis of a Prospective, 24-Month Open-Label Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate.2017
Effect of n-3 supplementation on hyperactivity, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.2012
Treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with acupuncture: A randomized controlled trial2015
Treatment effects of combining social skill training and parent training in Taiwanese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.2015
Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents.2009
A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.2010
Ningdong granule: a complementary and alternative therapy in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.2011
The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension.2012
Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2012
Effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.2016
Melatonin effects in methylphenidate treated children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized double blind clinical trial.2012
The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study.2009
Neurofeedback, pharmacological treatment and behavioral therapy in hyperactivity: Multilevel analysis of treatment effects on electroencephalography2015
Extended-release guanfacine hydrochloride in 6-17-year olds with ADHD: a randomised-withdrawal maintenance of efficacy study.2016
Homoeopathic management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomised placebo-controlled pilot trial2013
An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training programme for children with ADHD.2012
Safety of psychotropic drug prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Italy2010
A two-site randomized clinical trial of integrated psychosocial treatment for ADHD-inattentive type.
A family-school intervention for children with ADHD: results of a randomized clinical trial.2012
The influence of short-chain essential fatty acids on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.2009
Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial.2010
Long-term safety and efficacy of guanfacine extended release in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.2009
Acute and Long-Term Cardiovascular Effects of Stimulant, Guanfacine, and Combination Therapy for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.2016
Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. A randomized, placebo-controlled, trial.2015
Parent-teen behavior therapy + motivational interviewing for adolescents with ADHD.2016
Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools.2014
Social-skills and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment for children with ADHD--the randomised SOSTRA trial.
Effect of atomoxetine on Tanner stage sexual development in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: 18-month results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2011
Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and 'paying attention in class'.2015
Group therapy for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial.
Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial.2014
Impact of long-term treatment of methylphenidate on height and weight of school age children with ADHD.2010
Enhancing traditional behavioral parent training for single mothers of children with ADHD.2009
Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial.2014
Impact of a behavioural sleep intervention on symptoms and sleep in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and parental mental health: randomised controlled trial.
Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.2012
Effectiveness of a telehealth service delivery model for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a community-based randomized controlled trial.2015
Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (INCA study): a randomised controlled trial.2011
Parental reporting of adverse drug reactions associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in children attending specialist paediatric clinics in the UK.2011
Working memory training in young children with ADHD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.2014
Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD.2011

Downloadable Data Content

Files
  • XLSX Project Data