Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Groundwork for a Publicly Available Repository of Randomized Controlled Trial Data

Project Summary Title and Description

Title
Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Groundwork for a Publicly Available Repository of Randomized Controlled Trial Data
Description
Background. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reduces quality of life and functioning. People with PTSD have symptoms such as intrusive thoughts, nightmares, flashbacks, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, negative beliefs about oneself and/or others, and hypervigilance. The symptoms may be due to direct or indirect exposure to trauma, such as witnessing actual or threatened death, injury, or violence including sexual violence and threats of harm. Although recent clinical practice guidelines and reviews exist, providing a single, updatable source of PTSD treatment trials would be useful for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Purpose. To provide detailed information on PTSD treatment research, we systematically abstracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PTSD interventions. The National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (NCPTSD) intends to use the data to develop a publicly available data repository. The NCPTSD is part of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Data Sources. We searched PTSDpubs (formerly PILOTS), Ovid® MEDLINE®, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO®, Embase®, CINAHL®, and Scopus® for eligible RCTs and reviewed reference lists of selected systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Methods. In consultation with NCPTSD, we established inclusion criteria for RCTs and specific data elements to be abstracted. We dually reviewed citations from the literature search, and then the full text of potentially includable articles for eligibility, resolving any disagreements using consensus. One team member abstracted data from included RCTs into evidence tables, and a second reviewer checked abstracted data for accuracy and completeness. The primary publication for each RCT was abstracted; data and citations from any secondary publications (i.e., companion papers) appear in the same record. Findings. We identified 318 RCTs of PTSD interventions for abstraction (106 pharmacologic studies and 212 nonpharmacologic studies) published from 1988 to 2018, with a peak number of publications (31) in 2015. Psychotherapeutic interventions were the most commonly studied (55%), whereas 30 percent evaluated pharmacologic interventions. Most studies were conducted in the United States (61%), and most had sample sizes in the range of 25 to 100 participants (60% of studies) with a relatively small number of studies enrolling fewer than 25 participants (18%). More studies enrolled participants from a community population (57%) than from a military, veteran or other population, and the majority of studies were conducted in the outpatient setting (67%). Studies most often enrolled participants with a mix of trauma types (51%), followed by studies of participants with combat-related trauma (20%). Although there was wide variation, the most commonly used PTSD assessment methods were the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). Less than half of the studies reported loss of PTSD diagnosis or clinically meaningful response/remission of symptoms. Several other data elements were infrequently reported, including the number of participants with a history of traumatic brain injuries and the number of trauma types. Conclusions. The data abstracted from 318 RCTs of treatments for PTSD can be used to create a publicly available data repository. By identifying important gaps in the research, such a data repository can inform future study design and conduct.
Attribution
N/A
Authors of Report
N/A
Methodology description
Methods. In consultation with NCPTSD, we established inclusion criteria for RCTs and specific data elements to be abstracted. We dually reviewed citations from the literature search, and then the full text of potentially includable articles for eligibility, resolving any disagreements using consensus. One team member abstracted data from included RCTs into evidence tables, and a second reviewer checked abstracted data for accuracy and completeness. The primary publication for each RCT was abstracted; data and citations from any secondary publications (i.e., companion papers) appear in the same record.
PROSPERO
N/A
DOI
N/A
Notes
This project was entered retrospectively by uploading data to the project. Tables uploaded to this project: Appendix E Pharmacologic Studies and Appendix F Nonpharmacologic Studies DOI: https://doi.org/10.23970/AHRQEPCTB32
Funding Source
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

Key Questions

1. What pharmacologic interventions have been studied for the treatment of PTSD (since 1980)?
2. What nonpharmacologic interventions have been studied for the treatment of PTSD (since 1980)?

Associated Extraction Forms

Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

TitleAuthorsYear
Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder using phenelzine or imipramine.1991
Core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder unimproved by alprazolam treatment.1990
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with amitriptyline and placebo.1990
A controlled trial of phenelzine in posttraumatic stress disorder.1988
Fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder.1994
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center study of brofaromine in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.1995
Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder with a novel psychotropic.-- Not Found --
Inositol treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.1996
A preliminary study of lamotrigine for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.1999
Fluoxetine in post-traumatic stress disorder. Randomised, double-blind study.1999
Efficacy and safety of sertraline treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2000
Lack of efficacy for fluoxetine in PTSD: a placebo controlled trial in combat veterans.2000
Multicenter, double-blind comparison of sertraline and placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.2001
Olanzapine in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.2001
Sertraline, paroxetine, and venlafaxine in refugee posttraumatic stress disorder with depression symptoms.2001
Efficacy and safety of paroxetine treatment for chronic PTSD: a fixed-dose, placebo-controlled study.2001
Paroxetine in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial.2001
Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sertraline in military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.2002
Fluoxetine versus placebo in posttraumatic stress disorder.2002
Adjunctive olanzapine for SSRI-resistant combat-related PTSD: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2002
Pilot-controlled trial of D-cycloserine for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.2002
Mirtazapine vs. placebo in posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot trial.2003
Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: a placebo-controlled study.2003
Can physiologic assessment and side effects tease out differences in PTSD trials? A double-blind comparison of citalopram, sertraline, and placebo.2003
A placebo-controlled study of nefazodone for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.2004
Comparison of nefazodone and sertraline for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.2004
Efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine and sertraline in Korean veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized open label trial.2004
A preliminary study of risperidone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women.2004
Sertraline in the treatment of co-occurring alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder.2005
A comparative study of fluoxetine, moclobemide, and tianeptine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following an earthquake.2006
Tiagabine for posttraumatic stress disorder: effects of open-label and double-blind discontinuation treatment.2006
Reboxetine versus fluvoxamine in the treatment of motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a double-blind, fixed-dosage, controlled trial.2006
Venlafaxine extended release in posttraumatic stress disorder: a sertraline- and placebo-controlled study.2006
Risperidone monotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder related to sexual assault and domestic abuse in women.2006
A controlled trial of paroxetine for chronic PTSD, dissociation, and interpersonal problems in mostly minority adults.2007
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with venlafaxine extended release: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.2006
A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.2007
Augmentation of sertraline with prolonged exposure in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.2006
No improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with guanfacine treatment.2006
The efficacy and tolerability of tiagabine in adult patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.2007
A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine, and pill placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: treatment effects and long-term maintenance.2007
Efficacy and safety of topiramate monotherapy in civilian posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2007
Failed efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a fixed-dose, placebo-controlled study.
A placebo-controlled trial of bupropion SR in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.
Randomized, double-blind comparison of sertraline and placebo for posttraumatic stress disorder in a Department of Veterans Affairs setting.2007
Prazosin effects on objective sleep measures and clinical symptoms in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder: a placebo-controlled study.2008
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of augmentation topiramate for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.2007
Divalproex in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a veteran population.
Placebo-controlled trial of risperidone augmentation for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-resistant civilian posttraumatic stress disorder.
Paroxetine CR augmentation for posttraumatic stress disorder refractory to prolonged exposure therapy.2008
A placebo-controlled trial of guanfacine for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans.2008
Neuropsychological functioning in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder following short-term paroxetine treatment.2009
Pilot controlled trial of D-serine for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.2009
A preliminary controlled trial of divalproex in posttraumatic stress disorder.-- Not Found --
A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.2011
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy and tolerability of sertraline in Iranian veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.2011
A double-blind randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of topiramate in a civilian sample of PTSD.2011
Adjunctive risperidone treatment for antidepressant-resistant symptoms of chronic military service-related PTSD: a randomized trial.2011
Combined prolonged exposure therapy and paroxetine for PTSD related to the World Trade Center attack: a randomized controlled trial.2012
Noradrenergic vs serotonergic antidepressant with or without naltrexone for veterans with PTSD and comorbid alcohol dependence.2012
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine to enhance exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.2012
A Pilot Study of Mifepristone in Combat-Related PTSD.2012
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine and exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.2012
Olanzapine monotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: efficacy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2012
Clinical studies on treatment of earthquake-caused posttraumatic stress disorder using electroacupuncture.2012
A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).2013
Interfering with the reconsolidation of traumatic memory: sirolimus as a novel agent for treating veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.2013
A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan.2013
D-cycloserine augmentation of exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: a pilot randomized clinical trial.2014
Baclofen add-on to citalopram in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial.2014
A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans.2014
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional Japanese herbal medicine saikokeishikankyoto: a randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial in survivors of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.2014
Comparison between paroxetine and behaviour therapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A pilot study.2004
Comparing the effect of prazosin and hydroxyzine on sleep quality in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.2014
Cortisol augmentation of a psychological treatment for warfighters with posttraumatic stress disorder: Randomized trial showing improved treatment retention and outcome.2015
Effect of pregabalin augmentation in treatment of patients with combat-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2014
A pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive aripiprazole for chronic PTSD in US military Veterans resistant to antidepressant treatment.2015
Prolonged exposure, paroxetine and the combination in the treatment of PTSD following a motor vehicle accident. A randomized clinical trial - The "TRAKT" study.2015
COMBINED MIRTAZAPINE AND SSRI TREATMENT OF PTSD: A PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL.2015
No evidence for differential dose effects of hydrocortisone on intrusive memories in female patients with complex post-traumatic stress disorder--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.2015
The effect of flexible cognitive-behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees: pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial.2016
Prazosin for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence: A Clinical Trial.2016
Propranolol's impact on cognitive performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.2016
Doxazosin XL reduces symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans with PTSD: a pilot clinical trial.2016
Efficacy of Quetiapine Monotherapy in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.2016
Treatment of trauma-affected refugees with venlafaxine versus sertraline combined with psychotherapy - a randomised study.2016
Effect of Rivastigmine Augmentation in Treatment of Male Patients With Combat-Related Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2017
Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial.
Effect and safety of sertraline for treat posttraumatic stress disorder: a multicenter randomised controlled study.2017
A randomized controlled trial of ganaxolone in posttraumatic stress disorder.2017
Enhancing Extinction Learning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Brief Daily Imaginal Exposure and Methylene Blue: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2017
Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 Antagonism Is Ineffective for Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.2017
A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial of Vilazodone in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Depression.2017
Augmenting Prolonged Exposure therapy for PTSD with intranasal oxytocin: A randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial.2018
Reduction of PTSD Symptoms With Pre-Reactivation Propranolol Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2018
Trial of Prazosin for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans.2018
Augmenting treatment efficiency in exposure therapy for PTSD: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of yohimbine HCl.2018
Facilitating Fear-Based Memory Extinction With Dexamethasone: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Male Veterans With Combat-Related PTSD.2017
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans, firefighters, and police officers: a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 clinical trial.2018
Failed efficacy of ziprasidone in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.2016
The comparison of topiramate and placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized, double-blind study2004
Efficacy of paroxetine and amitriptyline in posttraumatic stress disorder: an open-label comparative study2011
Erratum: The safety and efficacy of ±3,4-psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study (Journal of Psychopharmacology (2010) 25 (439-452))2011
Nefazodone versus sertraline in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder2002
A comparison of mirtazapine and paroxetine for the treatment of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized open-label trial2010
The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial.2016
A non-inferiority trial of Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder: In person versus home-based telehealth.2017
Narrative exposure therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of aversive stimuli--evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial.2011
REM desensitization as a new therapeutic method for post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2015
Unilateral right and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled study.2018
The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.2015
Treatment of PTSD: a comparison of imaginal exposure with and without imagery rescripting.2007
Efficacy of exposure therapy for Japanese patients with posttraumatic stress disorder due to mixed traumatic events: A randomized controlled study.2010
Effect of Attention Training on Attention Bias Variability and PTSD Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trials in Israeli and U.S. Combat Veterans.
Single-session behavioral treatment of earthquake-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized waiting list controlled trial.2005
Group cognitive behavior therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: an initial randomized pilot study.2009
Multicomponent behavioral treatment for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2011
Narrative exposure therapy for political imprisonment-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and depression.2007
A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors.2003
Noninvasive brain stimulation with high-frequency and low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.2010
Dialectical behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual abuse in patients with and without borderline personality disorder: a randomised controlled trial.
Interference control training for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial of a novel computer-based intervention.2015
A spiritually based group intervention for combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: feasibility study.2008
A Pilot Study of the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Brain Response to Traumatic Reminders of Combat in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.2017
Brief psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorders.1989
Somatic Experiencing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Outcome Study.2017
A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.2011
Augmenting cognitive behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder with emotion tolerance training: a randomized controlled trial.2013
A randomized controlled trial of exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring for posttraumatic stress disorder.
Imaginal exposure alone and imaginal exposure with cognitive restructuring in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.2003
A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Dialogical Exposure Therapy versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adult Outpatients Suffering from PTSD after Type I Trauma in Adulthood.2016
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EDMR) treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.1998
Stress management versus cognitive restructuring in trauma-affected refugees-A pragmatic randomised study.2018
Group music therapy for patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder--an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation.2012
Group-delivered cognitive/exposure therapy for PTSD in women veterans: A randomized controlled trial.2016
An evaluation of cognitive processing therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse.
Psychological trauma symptom improvement in veterans using emotional freedom techniques: a randomized controlled trial.2013
Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse.2002
Treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse: a randomized controlled trial.2010
Trauma-focused exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in alcohol and drug dependent patients: A randomized controlled trial.2016
Trauma-focused imaginal exposure for individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: revealing mechanisms of alcohol craving in a cue reactivity paradigm.2006
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in posttraumatic stress disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2004
Imagery rehearsal for posttraumatic nightmares: a randomized controlled trial.2010
Randomized controlled comparison of cognitive behavior therapy with Rogerian supportive therapy in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: a 2-year follow-up.2008
Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11, 2001.2007
Stabilizing group treatment for complex posttraumatic stress disorder related to child abuse based on psychoeducation and cognitive behavioural therapy: a multisite randomized controlled trial.2012
Post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of terrorism and other civil conflict in Northern Ireland: randomised controlled trial.2007
A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of PTSD in the context of chronic whiplash.
A randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy, a self-help booklet, and repeated assessments as early interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder.2003
A randomized controlled trial of 7-day intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD and emotion-focused supportive therapy.2014
Randomized effectiveness trial of a brief course of acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder.2014
Centrally Assisted Collaborative Telecare for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Military Personnel Attending Primary Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2016
Delivery of self training and education for stressful situations (DESTRESS-PC): a randomized trial of nurse assisted online self-management for PTSD in primary care.-- Not Found --
Multiple channel exposure therapy for women with PTSD and comorbid panic attacks.2008
Treating low-income and minority women with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study comparing prolonged exposure and treatment as usual conducted by community therapists.2008
A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims.1999
Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: outcome at academic and community clinics.2005
Effect of Prolonged Exposure Therapy Delivered Over 2 Weeks vs 8 Weeks vs Present-Centered Therapy on PTSD Symptom Severity in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2018
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling.1991
PTSD Psychotherapy Outcome Predicted by Brain Activation During Emotional Reactivity and Regulation.2017
A multisite randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive processing therapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder.2012
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.2016
Randomized clinical trial pilot study of prolonged exposure versus present centred affect regulation therapy for PTSD and anger problems with male military combat veterans.2018
Telemedicine-based collaborative care for posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial.2015
Face to face but not in the same place: A pilot study of prolonged exposure therapy.-- Not Found --
A randomized trial of telepsychiatry for post-traumatic stress disorder.2007
Manualized therapy for PTSD: flexing the structure of cognitive processing therapy.2012
Augmenting cognitive processing therapy to improve sleep impairment in PTSD: A randomized controlled trial.2016
PTSD elderly war veterans: a clinical controlled pilot study.
A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD.2016
Nature adventure rehabilitation for combat-related posttraumatic chronic stress disorder: a randomized control trial.2013
Randomized clinical trial of brief eclectic psychotherapy for police officers with posttraumatic stress disorder.2000
Feasibility of Training Frontline Therapists in Prolonged Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of Treatment of Complex Trauma in Diverse Victims of Crime and Violence.2017
Veterans Group Exercise: A randomized pilot trial of an Integrative Exercise program for veterans with posttraumatic stress.2018
Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial of 74 male veterans.2017
Stellate Ganglion Block for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.-- Not Found --
Spiritually integrated care for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial of "Building Spiritual Strength".2018
Treatment of traumatized victims of war and torture: a randomized controlled comparison of narrative exposure therapy and stress inoculation training.2011
Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.2014
Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response.2009
Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD: a pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation.
Alliance and outcome in varying imagery procedures for PTSD: a study of within-person processes.2013
On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers--a randomized controlled trial.2007
Acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled pilot trial.2007
Effects of Outward Bound Experience as an adjunct to inpatient PTSD treatment of war veterans.1996
Effectiveness of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with a brief exposure procedure in post-traumatic stress disorder--a pilot study.2013
Dissemination of psychotherapy for trauma spectrum disorders in postconflict settings: a randomized controlled trial in Rwanda.2014
The Effect of Relaxation Music Listening on Sleep Quality in Traumatized Refugees: A Pilot Study.2012
A Yoga Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress: A Preliminary Randomized Control Trial.2015
Cognitive behavioral treatment of PTSD in residents of battered women's shelters: results of a randomized clinical trial.2011
Effects of therapeutic horseback riding on post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans.2018
A randomized controlled trial on cognitive restructuring and imagery modification to reduce the feeling of being contaminated in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.2013
A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques.2011
Effects of participation in a mindfulness program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.2013
A resilience-oriented treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a preliminary randomized clinical trial.2011
ALTERED DEFAULT MODE NETWORK (DMN) RESTING STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY FOLLOWING A MINDFULNESS-BASED EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) IN COMBAT VETERANS OF AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ.2016
A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social-Emotional Processing.2016
Randomized controlled trial of accelerated resolution therapy (ART) for symptoms of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).2013
Efficacy and Feasibility of a Therapist-Guided Internet-Based Intervention for Older Persons with Childhood Traumatization: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2017
Web-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in war-traumatized Arab patients: randomized controlled trial.
Repetitive TMS to augment cognitive processing therapy in combat veterans of recent conflicts with PTSD: A randomized clinical trial.2018
An Internet-based writing intervention for PTSD in veterans: A feasibility and pilot effectiveness trial.2017
Group interpersonal psychotherapy for low-income women with posttraumatic stress disorder.2008
Cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with PTSD (CTT-BW).2004
The effectiveness of an attention bias modification program as an adjunctive treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.2014
Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment.2017
Treatment of PTSD: stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure compared to EMDR.2002
Change in post-traumatic stress symptoms following psychosocial treatment for breast cancer.2005
Internet-based guided self-help for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Randomized controlled trial.2017
The From Survivor to Thriver program: RCT of an online therapist-facilitated program for rape-related PTSD.2016
Impact of Killing in War: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial.2017
Randomized controlled equivalence trial comparing videoconference and in person delivery of cognitive processing therapy for PTSD.2016
Is Exposure Necessary? A Randomized Clinical Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD.2015
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: a controlled study.1998
Comparative study of group treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder.2016
Randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse.2005
A Randomized, Head-to-Head Study of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.2017
A randomized, controlled trial of virtual reality-graded exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.2011
Impact of Collaborative Care for Underserved Patients with PTSD in Primary Care: a Randomized Controlled Trial.
The effectiveness of VR exposure therapy for PTSD in returning warfighters.2012
Effect of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy for PTSD: a randomized controlled trial.2012
Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder.2006
A pilot randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of MEmory Specificity Training in improving symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.2014
The effect of trauma-focused therapy on the altered T cell distribution in individuals with PTSD: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.2014
TELEMEDICINE VERSUS IN-PERSON DELIVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSING THERAPY FOR WOMEN WITH POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A RANDOMIZED NONINFERIORITY TRIAL.2015
Cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder delivered to rural veterans via telemental health: a randomized noninferiority clinical trial.2014
Evaluation of cognitive restructuring for post-traumatic stress disorder in people with severe mental illness.
A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness.
Prolonged exposure therapy for combat- and terror-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized control comparison with treatment as usual.2011
Are 60-minute prolonged exposure sessions with 20-minute imaginal exposure to traumatic memories sufficient to successfully treat PTSD? A randomized noninferiority clinical trial.2015
Low-frequency, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Double-blind, Sham-controlled Study.2013
Can asylum-seekers with posttraumatic stress disorder be successfully treated? A randomized controlled pilot study.2010
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: a randomized controlled trial.2008
Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial.2012
Cognitive-behavior therapy vs exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees.2001
Treating Trauma in Addiction with EMDR: A Pilot Study.-- Not Found --
Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.2015
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2015
Using PTSD Coach in primary care with and without clinician support: a pilot randomized controlled trial.-- Not Found --
Exercise Augmentation of Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Rationale and Pilot Efficacy Data.2015
Efficacy of a Satyananda Yoga Intervention for Reintegrating Adults Diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.-- Not Found --
Biological and symptom changes in posttraumatic stress disorder treatment: a randomized clinical trial.2015
Comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to present-centered therapy with 11 U.S. Vietnam veterans with PTSD.2010
Randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Kripalu Yoga for Military Veterans With PTSD: A Randomized Trial.2018
A randomized clinical trial to dismantle components of cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in female victims of interpersonal violence.2008
A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims.2002
Effect of Group vs Individual Cognitive Processing Therapy in Active-Duty Military Seeking Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2017
A randomized clinical trial of group cognitive processing therapy compared with group present-centered therapy for PTSD among active duty military personnel.2015
Post-traumatic stress disorder: evaluation of a behavioral treatment program.1994
A single session, group study of exposure and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Vietnam War veterans: preliminary data.-- Not Found --
Exercise augmentation compared with usual care for post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2015
A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims.1997
Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims.2005
A Comparison of Dual Attention, Eye Movements, and Exposure Only during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.2016
Efficacy of structured approach therapy in reducing PTSD in returning veterans: A randomized clinical trial.2015
Incentivizing attendance to prolonged exposure for PTSD with opioid use disorder patients: A randomized controlled trial.2017
Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: a randomized controlled trial.2007
Randomized trial of trauma-focused group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: results from a department of veterans affairs cooperative study.2003
RESPECT-PTSD: re-engineering systems for the primary care treatment of PTSD, a randomized controlled trial.2013
Attentional bias modification in posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2013
A randomized controlled trial of the safety and promise of cognitive-behavioral therapy using imaginal exposure in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from cardiovascular illness.2011
A closer examination of the structured written disclosure procedure.2004
Written exposure as an intervention for PTSD: a randomized clinical trial with motor vehicle accident survivors.2012
Does altering the writing instructions influence outcome associated with written disclosure?2007
A test of written emotional disclosure as an intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder.2011
A Brief Exposure-Based Treatment vs Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Noninferiority Clinical Trial.2018
Expressive writing and post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on trauma symptoms, mood states, and cortisol reactivity.2008
Randomized controlled trial of Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.2011
Internet-based trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for PTSD with and without exposure components: a randomised controlled trial.2014
RCT of a brief phone-based CBT intervention to improve PTSD treatment utilization by returning service members.2014
Treating post-traumatic stress disorder by resource activation in Cambodia.2016
Treating PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers within the general health care system. A randomized controlled multicenter study.
A randomized clinical trial of cognitive processing therapy for veterans with PTSD related to military sexual trauma.2013
Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2014
A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.1999
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial.2016
A multi-component cognitive-behavioral intervention for sleep disturbance in veterans with PTSD: a pilot study.2011
Prolonged exposure vs eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs waiting list for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with a psychotic disorder: a randomized clinical trial.2015
Treating complicated grief and posttraumatic stress in homicidally bereaved individuals: A randomized controlled trial.2018
A Randomized Controlled Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD.
Yoga as an adjunctive treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2014
Prolonged exposure for the treatment of Spanish-speaking Puerto Ricans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a feasibility study.2011
Mechanistic Pathways of Mindfulness Meditation in Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.2016
The efficacies of three relaxation regimens in the treatment of PTSD in Vietnam War veterans.1997
A sham controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder.2012
Treating posttraumatic stress disorder with metacognitive therapy: a preliminary controlled trial.2012
Glucocorticoid-related predictors and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder treatment response in combat veterans.2014
Randomized Controlled Trial of Home-Based Telehealth Versus In-Person Prolonged Exposure for Combat-Related PTSD in Veterans: Preliminary Results.2015
An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Group Intervention for Syrian Refugees With Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.2018
Adapting narrative exposure therapy for Chinese earthquake survivors: a pilot randomised controlled feasibility study.2014
Posttraumatic stress disorder treatment for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom combat veterans through a civilian community-based telemedicine network.2014
An affect-management group for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and histories of childhood sexual abuse.1997
The effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on heart rate variability and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study.2009
Effect of Attention Training on Attention Bias Variability and PTSD Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trials in Israeli and U.S. Combat Veterans.
The efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in resolving the trauma caused by the road accidents in the Sultanate of Oman2012
Experimentally reducing event centrality using a modified expressive writing intervention2015
Meditation-based mantram intervention for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized trial2013
A randomized clinical trial of Observed and Experiential Integration (OEI): a simple, innovative intervention for affect regulation in clients with PTSD2014
Multi-component yoga breath program for Vietnam veteran post traumatic stress disorder: randomized controlled trial2013
A preliminary report comparing trauma-focused and present-focused group therapy against a wait-listed condition among childhood sexual abuse survivors with PTSD2001
Statistical and reliable change with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: treating trauma within a veteran population1998
Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: an experimental study1996
Cognitive behavioural treatment of post traumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accident1999
EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) remediates PTSD and psychological symptoms in veterans: a randomized controlled replication trial2016
Guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial2014
An investigation of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMD/R) as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of Vietnam combat veterans1994
Comparing holographic reprocessing and prolonged exposure for women veterans with sexual trauma: a pilot randomized trial2014
Implosive (flooding) therapy reduces symptoms of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans1989
Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting1997
Comparing mindfulness and psychoeducation treatments for combat-related PTSD using a telehealth approach2012
Effectiveness of neuro-feedback treatment with alpha/theta method on PTSD symptoms and their executing function2017
A controlled comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring versus waiting list in the treatment of post‐traumatic stress disorder2002
Early EMDR intervention following a community critical incident: a randomized clinical trial2015
Evaluation of the reconsolidation of traumatic memories protocol for the treatment of PTSD: a randomized, wait-list-controlled trial2017
Behavioral activation as an early intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among physically injured trauma survivors2007
Metacognitive therapy versus prolonged exposure in adults with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder2015

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