Nonopioid Pharmacologic Treatments for Chronic Pain

Project Summary Title and Description

Title
Nonopioid Pharmacologic Treatments for Chronic Pain
Description
To evaluate the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of nonopioid pharmacologic agents in patients with specific types of chronic pain, considering the effects of on pain, function, quality of life, and adverse events.
Attribution
N/A
Authors of Report
N/A
Methodology description
Electronic databases (Ovid® MEDLINE®, Embase®, PsycINFO®, CINAHL®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) were searched through September 10, 2019. Reference lists, data request, and previous reviews were also sought for potentially eligible studies. Identified citations were screened at abstract level by 1 reviewer and citation deemed not relevant by 1 reviewer was screened by a second reviewer. Full-text articles for citations deemed potentially eligible were screened independently by 2 reviewers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of nonopioid pharmacological agents in patients with chronic pain were selected using predefined criteria and dual review. This review focused on seven common chronic pain conditions (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, low back pain, chronic headache, sickle cell disease) with effects analyzed at short term (1 to <6 months following treatment completion), intermediate term (≥6 to <12 months), and long term (≥12 months). Magnitude of effects were described as small, moderate, or large using previously defined criteria, and strength of evidence was assessed. Meta-analyses were conducted where data allowed, stratified by duration within each intervention type, using random effects models. We evaluated effect modification through subgroup and sensitivity analyses, including specific drug, dose, study quality, and pain type. Risk of bias (study quality) assessment followed Cochrane Back and Neck Group and AHRQ EPC Methods Guide.
PROSPERO
CRD42019134249
DOI
N/A
Notes
DOI: 10.23970/AHRQEPCCER228 Data for this project was entered retrospectively by uploading data to the project from Microsoft Excel. Evidence tables uploaded: Appendix E. Study Characteristics Appendix F1. Data Abstraction of Efficacy Outcomes Appendix F2. Data Abstraction of Harms Outcomes Appendix G. Quality Assessment
Funding Source
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Contract No. HHSA-290-2015-00009-I)

Key Questions

1. In patients with chronic pain, what is the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of nonopioid pharmacologic agents for outcomes related to pain, function, and quality of life, after short-term (3 to 6 months), intermediate-term (6 to 12 months), and long-term (over 12 months) treatment duration? How does effectiveness or comparative effectiveness vary depending on: (1) the specific type or cause of pain, (2) patient demographics, (3) patient comorbidities, (4) dose of medication used, (5) duration of treatment, and (6) dose titration, including tapering?
2. In patients with chronic pain, what are the risks of nonopioid pharmacologic agents for harms including overdose, misuse, dependence, SUD, withdrawals due to adverse events, and serious adverse events (including falls, fractures, motor vehicle accidents), and specific adverse events according to drug class? How do harms vary depending on: (1) the specific type or cause of pain, (2) patient demographics, (3) patient comorbidities, (4) dose of medication used, (5) duration of treatment, and (6) dose titration, including tapering?

Associated Extraction Forms

Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

TitleAuthorsYear
A double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder.2004
Duloxetine for the management of pain in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: randomised placebo-controlled trial.2012
Clinical Experience With Desvenlafaxine in Treatment of Patients With Fibromyalgia Syndrome.2017
Three-month efficacy and safety of acetaminophen extended-release for osteoarthritis pain of the hip or knee: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2007
Efficacy and safety of low-dose SoluMatrix meloxicam in the treatment of osteoarthritis pain: a 12-week, phase 3 study.2015
Etodolac, aspirin, and placebo in patients with degenerative joint disease: a twelve-week study.1983
Efficacy and safety of pregabalin 600 mg/d for treating painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.2008
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder.2005
Gabapentin in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.2007
A 14-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled monotherapy trial of pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia.2008
Flexible dosed duloxetine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2010
Efficacy and safety of milnacipran 100 mg/day in patients with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2010
Efficacy and safety of duloxetine 30 mg/d in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.-- Not Found --
Efficacy and safety of mirogabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia: results from three 13-week randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group studies and a 52-week open-label extension study.2019
Efficacy of noradrenergic and serotonergic antidepressants in chronic back pain: a preliminary concentration-controlled trial.2007
A randomized controlled trial of gabapentin for chronic low back pain with and without a radiating component.2016
NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomised, double-blind study.2008
Efficacy, safety, and effects on blood pressure of naproxcinod 750 mg twice daily compared with placebo and naproxen 500 mg twice daily in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study.2010
Efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac dispersible in painful osteoarthrosis.1993
Safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.2010
Celecoxib is efficacious and well tolerated in treating signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis.2006
Randomized controlled trial of diclofenac sodium gel in knee osteoarthritis.2009
Nabumetone induces less gastrointestinal mucosal changes than diclofenac retard.1999
Treatment of osteoarthritis with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: a randomized controlled trial.1999
Efficacy and safety of valdecoxib in treating the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, controlled comparison with placebo and naproxen.2002
Oxcarbazepine in painful diabetic neuropathy: results of a dose-ranging study.2006
Efficacy and safety of etoricoxib 30 mg and celecoxib 200 mg in the treatment of osteoarthritis in two identically designed, randomized, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority studies.2007
Responsiveness of the OARSI-OMERACT osteoarthritis pain and function measures.2012
Pregabalin for the management of cervicogenic headache: a double blind study.2014
A European multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled monotherapy clinical trial of milnacipran in treatment of fibromyalgia.2010
Longterm therapeutic response to milnacipran treatment for fibromyalgia. A European 1-year extension study following a 3-month study.2011
A randomized trial of pregabalin in patients with neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury.2013
Comparison of amitriptyline, cyclobenzaprine, and placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.1994
Lack of efficacy of acetaminophen in treating symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison trial with diclofenac sodium.2003
A six-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia.2008
Duloxetine, a centrally acting analgesic, in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis knee pain: a 13-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.2009
A 1-year safety and efficacy study of duloxetine in patients with fibromyalgia.2009
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of duloxetine for the treatment of chronic pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee.-- Not Found --
Milnacipran for the treatment of fibromyalgia in adults: a 15-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose clinical trial.2008
Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis.2006
A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy.2012
A multinational randomized, controlled, clinical trial of etoricoxib in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ISRCTN25142273.2002
A multicentre, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel (IDEA-033) with ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) and oral celecoxib for knee pain associated with osteoarthritis.2013
GI-REASONS: a novel 6-month, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial.2013
A randomized, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study to assess the adverse event-related discontinuation rate with celecoxib and diclofenac in elderly patients with osteoarthritis.-- Not Found --
Gabapentin vs. amitriptyline in painful diabetic neuropathy: an open-label pilot study.2000
Double-blind comparison of etodolac and naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.-- Not Found --
Twelve-week study of etodolac, aspirin, and placebo in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.1983
Tramadol hydrochloride extended-release once-daily in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip: a double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging trial.2011
Evaluation of efficacy and safety of gabapentin, duloxetine, and pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.2012
Oxcarbazepine in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.2005
Ankylosing spondylitis: what is the optimum duration of a clinical study? A one year versus a 6 weeks non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug trial.1999
Etodolac, aspirin, and placebo in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week study.1983
Nabumetone compared with naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter, double blind, randomized, parallel group trial in hospital outpatients.1992
Celecoxib versus diclofenac in long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis: randomised double-blind comparison.-- Not Found --
Analgesic effectiveness of celecoxib and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip requiring joint replacement surgery: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, double-dummy, noninferiority study.2008
Efficacy of duloxetine and gabapentin in pain reduction in patients with knee osteoarthritis.2019
Efficacy and tolerability of celecoxib versus naproxen in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial.2012
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of β-d-mannuronic acid in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, phase I/II clinical trial.2018
Lumiracoxib is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized 13-week study versus placebo and celecoxib.2006
Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens.2005
Dose response and safety study of meloxicam up to 22.5 mg daily in rheumatoid arthritis: a 12 week multicenter, double blind, dose response study versus placebo and diclofenac.2002
Duloxetine versus placebo in the treatment of patients with diabetic neuropathic pain in China.2010
Treatment of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain in China: a double-blind randomised trial of duloxetine vs. placebo.2015
Comparison of Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Newer Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Patients of Osteoarthritis of Knee Joint: A Randomized, Prospective, Open-label Parallel-group Study.-- Not Found --
A placebo and active comparator-controlled trial of rofecoxib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.2002
Efficacy, safety and tolerability of lumiracoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.2004
Efficacy and tolerability of valdecoxib in treating the signs and symptoms of severe rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2007
Efficacy and safety of low-dose submicron diclofenac for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain: a 12 week, phase 3 study.2014
Durability of therapeutic response to milnacipran treatment for fibromyalgia. Results of a randomized, double-blind, monotherapy 6-month extension study.2010
Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.2005
Controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of amitriptyline in relieving articular pain and tenderness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.1985
A randomized, placebo-controlled study of oxcarbazepine in painful diabetic neuropathy.2006
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of moclobemide and amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia in females without psychiatric disorder.1998
Comparison of the effect of rofecoxib (a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor), ibuprofen, and placebo on the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Rofecoxib Osteoarthritis Endoscopy Multinational Study Group.2000
Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study.2003
Gastroduodenal safety and tolerability of lumiracoxib compared with Ibuprofen and celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis.2004
Fixed-dose combination of enteric-coated naproxen and immediate-release esomeprazole has comparable efficacy to celecoxib for knee osteoarthritis: two randomized trials.2011
Diclofenac in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: review of worldwide clinical experience and report of a double-blind comparison with indomethacin.1985
Comparative efficacy and safety of celecoxib and naproxen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip.-- Not Found --
Randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing efficacy and safety of valdecoxib with naproxen in patients with osteoarthritis.2002
Reduced incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers associated with lumiracoxib compared with ibuprofen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.2004
Tolerability and efficacy of nabumetone and naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.2000
Ulcer formation with low-dose enteric-coated aspirin and the effect of COX-2 selective inhibition: a double-blind trial.2004
Efficacy and tolerability of lumiracoxib 100 mg once daily in knee osteoarthritis: a 13-week, randomized, double-blind study vs. placebo and celecoxib.2005
Efficacy and tolerability profile of etoricoxib in patients with osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-comparator controlled 12-week efficacy trial.2002
Double-blind comparison of etodolac and diclofenac in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.1993
A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of etoricoxib in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.2002
Efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.2014
A comparative study of nabumetone and indomethacin in ankylosing spondylitis.1991
An international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of pregabalin monotherapy in treatment of patients with fibromyalgia.2011
Efficacy and tolerability of amitriptylinoxide in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache: a multi-centre controlled study.1994
Six-month multi-center study comparing nabumetone with naproxen in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator.2007
How do changes in pain severity levels correspond to changes in health status and function in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy?2010
Management of chronic tension-type headache with tricyclic antidepressant medication, stress management therapy, and their combination: a randomized controlled trial.2001
Meloxicam in osteoarthritis: a 6-month, double-blind comparison with diclofenac sodium.
Efficacy and safety of duloxetine and Pregabalin in Iranian patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.2019
An open labeled randomized controlled trial of pregabalin versus amitriptyline in chronic low backache.2014
Safety and efficacy of pregabalin in patients with central post-stroke pain.2011
Comparison of the effectiveness and tolerability of lidocaine patch 5% versus celecoxib for osteoarthritis-related knee pain: post hoc analysis of a 12 week, prospective, randomized, active-controlled, open-label, parallel-group trial in adults.2008
Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Phase III Trial of Duloxetine Monotherapy in Japanese Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.2016
A randomized trial comparing the effect of rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase 2-specific inhibitor, with that of ibuprofen on the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with osteoarthritis. Rofecoxib Osteoarthritis Endoscopy Study Group.1999
Comparative role of pregabalin and carbamazepine regarding efficacy in painful diabetic neuropathy.2017
Efficacy and safety of the COX-2 specific inhibitor valdecoxib in the management of osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with naproxen.2002
Efficacy of pregabalin in post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.2018
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia.2008
The efficacy and safety of milnacipran for treatment of fibromyalgia. a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2009
Treatment of elderly patients with nabumetone or diclofenac: gastrointestinal safety profile.2001
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of duloxetine in Japanese fibromyalgia patients.2015
The safety and efficacy of Guluronic acid (G2013) in ankylosing spondylitis: A randomized controlled parallel clinical trial.2019
A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia.2012
Nabumetone versus naproxen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. A six-month trial.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12 week trial of acetaminophen extended release for the treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis.2014
A randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of etoricoxib 30 mg and ibuprofen 2400 mg for the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis.2007
A double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.-- Not Found --
A randomized, controlled trial of gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.2013
Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: the ChONdroitin versus CElecoxib versus Placebo Trial (CONCEPT).2017
A controlled study comparing the effects of nabumetone, ibuprofen, and ibuprofen plus misoprostol on the upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa.1993
Efficacy and safety of a topical diclofenac solution (pennsaid) in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial.2004
Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial.2008
Efficacy and safety of pregabalin for treating neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a 14 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2011
A placebo-controlled study of memantine for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy.2006
Dronabinol Is a Safe Long-Term Treatment Option for Neuropathic Pain Patients.2017
Management of Sickle Cell Pain Using Pregabalin: A Pilot Study.2017
Comparison of lumiracoxib with naproxen and ibuprofen in the Therapeutic Arthritis Research and Gastrointestinal Event Trial (TARGET), reduction in ulcer complications: randomised controlled trial.-- Not Found --
Efficacy and safety of naproxcinod in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a 13-week prospective, randomized, multicenter study.2010
A 13-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study of lumiracoxib in hip osteoarthritis.2011
Efficacy and safety of naproxcinod in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a 53-week prospective randomized multicenter study.2011
Safety and efficacy of nabumetone in osteoarthritis: emphasis on gastrointestinal safety.2000
Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex) in painful diabetic neuropathy: depression is a major confounding factor.2010
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment.2014
Efficacy and tolerability of lumiracoxib in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a 13-week, randomized, double-blind comparison with celecoxib and placebo.2005
Pregabalin in central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury: a placebo-controlled trial.2006
Comparison of two different dosages of celecoxib with diclofenac for the treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis: results of a 12-week randomised, double-blind, controlled study.2008
Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers associated with valdecoxib compared with that of ibuprofen and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis.2002
Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.1999
Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.2009
Pregabalin for painful HIV neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2010
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and open-label extension study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with human immunodeficiency virus neuropathy.2014
A double-blind, randomized trial of duloxetine versus placebo in the management of chronic low back pain.2009
Duloxetine versus placebo in patients with chronic low back pain: a 12-week, fixed-dose, randomized, double-blind trial.2010
Efficacy and safety of carisbamate in patients with diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia: results from 3 randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trials.2014
The effect of pregabalin or duloxetine on arthritis pain: a clinical and mechanistic study in people with hand osteoarthritis.2017
The Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy on 24-hour blood pressure in patients with hypertension, osteoarthritis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.2005
Lumiracoxib is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a 13 week, randomised, double blind study versus placebo and celecoxib.2004
Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group trial of the long-term (6-12 months) safety of acetaminophen in adult patients with osteoarthritis.2006
Brain Connectivity Predicts Placebo Response across Chronic Pain Clinical Trials.2016
Pregabalin for relief of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind study.2008
Equivalence study of a topical diclofenac solution (pennsaid) compared with oral diclofenac in symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial.2004
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial of duloxetine in Japanese patients with knee pain due to osteoarthritis.2018
Efficacy of Low-Dose Amitriptyline for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2018
Efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily pregabalin for treating pain and related sleep interference in postherpetic neuralgia: a 13-week, randomized trial.2006
Controlled evaluation of nabumetone in the treatment of active adult rheumatoid arthritis. Nabumetone versus naproxen double-blind parallel study.
A comparison of naproxen and diclofenac sodium in the treatment of osteoarthritis in elderly patients.1985
A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia.2004
Celecoxib versus diclofenac for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: 12-week randomized study in Norwegian patients.2016
Efficacy and safety of duloxetine in Chinese patients with chronic pain due to osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.2017
Effect of duration of postherpetic neuralgia on efficacy analyses in a multicenter, randomized, controlled study of NGX-4010, an 8% capsaicin patch evaluated for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.2010
A randomized controlled trial of duloxetine in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.2006
Evaluation of the comparative efficacy of etoricoxib and ibuprofen for treatment of patients with osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.2005
A six-month double-blind trial to compare the efficacy and safety of meloxicam 7.5 mg daily and naproxen 750 mg daily in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.1996
Superiority of duloxetine to placebo in improving diabetic neuropathic pain: Results of a randomized controlled trial in Japan.2011
Efficacy and safety of 40 mg or 60 mg duloxetine in Japanese adults with diabetic neuropathic pain: Results from a randomized, 52-week, open-label study.2016
Safety and efficacy of meloxicam in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a 12-week, double-blind, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled trial. The Meloxicam Osteoarthritis Investigators.2000
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PXN110748).2013
Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers during treatment with celecoxib or diclofenac: pooled results from three 12-week trials in Chinese patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.2010
Reduced incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers with celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, compared to naproxen in patients with arthritis.2001
Complementary studies of the gastrointestinal safety of the cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective inhibitor etoricoxib.2003
Efficacy of nabumetone versus diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, and piroxicam in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.1993
Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib: the Standard care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT).2017
Cardiovascular Safety of Celecoxib, Naproxen, or Ibuprofen for Arthritis.2016
Endoscopy-controlled study of the safety of nabumetone compared with naproxen in arthritis therapy.1987
Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: A randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study.2000
Endoscopic evaluation of the long term effects of diclofenac sodium and naproxen in elderly patients with arthritis1995
Three-month trial of etodolac (Ultradol®) compared with aspirin and placebo in patients with rheumatoid arthritis1983
Placebo-controlled study of etodolac and aspirin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis1983
Safety and efficacy of etodolac, once or twice a day, in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis1985
The efficacy of gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury2012
An open-label, randomized comparison of duloxetine, pregabalin, and the combination of duloxetine and gabapentin among patients with inadequate response to gabapentin for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain2010

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