Schedule of Visits and Televisits for Routine Antenatal Care

Project Summary Title and Description

Schedule of Visits and Televisits for Routine Antenatal Care
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) nominated the topic of antenatal care to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for systematic review. AGOG and SMFM develop clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements both individually and jointly based on the needs of its members who are clinicians that provide gynecologic, obstetric, and high-risk pregnancy care. The scope of the current systematic review was developed to support ACOG and SMFM in their effort to create a new joint consensus statement that will address the preferred frequency, timing, and cadence of routine antenatal care schedules. It will also address use of telemedicine for routine antenatal care. Specifically, the systematic review will summarize (1) the findings from studies of the effectiveness of antenatal care schedules that vary by number and timing of visits for uncomplicated pregnancies, including studies comparing group and individual visits; (2) studies of the effectiveness of telemedicine modalities for providing antenatal care for uncomplicated pregnancies; and (3) qualitative evidence of the patient and provider perspectives, preferences, and perceptions related to the frequency and timing of antenatal care visits and telemedicine approaches to prenatal care. The intended audience includes guideline developers, clinicians and other providers of antenatal care, healthcare policymakers, and patients.
Brown Evidence-based Practice Center
Authors of Report
Ethan M. Balk, M.D., M.P.H. Kristin J. Konnyu, Ph.D. Valery A. Danilack, M.P.H., Ph.D. Gaelen P. Adam, M.L.I.S., M.P.H. Wangnan Cao, Ph.D. Monika Reddy Bhuma, B.D.S, M.P.H. Kristen A. Matteson, M.D., M.P.H. Alex Friedman Peahl, M.D., M.Sc.
Methodology description
Systematic Review
KQ 1: What are the benefits and harms of different antenatal care schedules that vary by number or timing of visits for pregnancies requiring routine care and monitoring? KQ 2: What are the benefits and harms of televisits for providing routine antenatal care during pregnancy? (KQ 3, a qualitative evidence synthesis, was not extracted into SRDRplus.) Protocol available at Data were entered prospectively into SRDRplus. Systematic review will be available at
Funding Source
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Key Questions

1. KQ 1: What are the benefits and harms of different antenatal care schedules that vary by number of visits, timing, and cadence for pregnancies requiring routine care and monitoring?
2. KQ 2: What are the benefits and harms of telemedicine for providing routine antenatal care during pregnancy?

Associated Extraction Forms


Associated Studies (each link opens a new tab)

Title Authors Year
Comparison Between In-Person and Audio-Only Virtual Prenatal Visits and Perinatal Outcomes Duryea, Elaine L, Adhikari, Emily H, Ambia, Anne, Spong, Catherine, McIntire, Donald, Nelson, David B 2021
Effect of frequency of prenatal care visits on perinatal outcome among low-risk women. A randomized controlled trial. McDuffie R S, Beck A, Bischoff K, Cross J, Orleans M 1996
Health services effects of a reduced routine programme for antenatal care. An area-based study. Berglund A C, Lindmark G C 1998
Evaluation of a reduced-frequency prenatal visit schedule for low-risk women at a free-standing birthing center. Walker D S, Koniak-Griffin D 1997 Jul-Aug
Improved adequacy of prenatal care and healthcare utilization among low-income Latinas receiving group prenatal care. Tandon S Darius, Cluxton-Keller Fallon, Colon Lucinda, Vega Patricia, Alonso Alina 2013
Virtual Visits: Managing prenatal care with modern technology. Pflugeisen Bethann M, McCarren Christi, Poore Stephen, Carlile Malinda, Schroeder Richard 2016 Jan-Feb
Patient Satisfaction with Virtual Obstetric Care. Pflugeisen Bethann Mangel, Mou Jin 2017
Antenatal home blood pressure monitoring: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Ross-McGill H, Hewison J, Hirst J, Dowswell T, Holt A, Brunskill P, Thornton J G 2000
Randomized comparison of a reduced-visit prenatal care model enhanced with remote monitoring. Butler Tobah Yvonne S, LeBlanc Annie, Branda Megan E, Inselman Jonathan W, Morris Megan A, Ridgeway Jennifer L, Finnie Dawn M, Theiler Regan, Torbenson Vanessa E, Brodrick Ellen M, Meylor de Mooij Marnie, Gostout Bobbie, Famuyide Abimbola 2019
A randomised controlled trial comparing two schedules of antenatal visits: the antenatal care project. Sikorski J, Wilson J, Clement S, Das S, Smeeton N 1996
Antenatal telephone support intervention with and without uterine artery Doppler screening for low risk nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial. Snaith Vikki J, Hewison Jenny, Steen Ian N, Robson Stephen C 2014
A randomised controlled trial of flexibility in routine antenatal care. Jewell D, Sharp D, Sanders J, Peters T J 2000
A randomized trial of augmented prenatal care for multiple-risk, Medicaid-eligible African American women. Klerman L V, Ramey S L, Goldenberg R L, Marbury S, Hou J, Cliver S P 2001
Impact of prenatal care with reduced frequency of visits in a residency teaching program. Ward N, Bayer S, Ballard M, Patience T, Hume R F, Calhoun B C 1999
A Mobile Prenatal Care App to Reduce In-Person Visits: Prospective Controlled Trial. Marko Kathryn I, Ganju Nihar, Krapf Jill M, Gaba Nancy D, Brown James A, Benham Joshua J, Oh Julia, Richards Lorna M, Meltzer Andrew C 2019
Effects of a reduced-visit prenatal care clinical practice guideline. Partridge Christopher A, Holman John R 2005 Nov-Dec
Addressing Disparities in Prenatal Care via Telehealth During COVID-19: Prenatal Satisfaction Survey in East Harlem. Futterman Itamar, Rosenfeld Emily, Toaff Miriam, Boucher Taryn, Golden-Espinal Samantha, Evans Kamilah, Clare Camille A 2021
A randomized trial of prenatal care using telemedicine for low-risk pregnancies: patient-related cost and time savings Barbour, Kelli Diane , Nelson, Richard, Esplin, M. Sean, Varner, Michael, Clark, Erin A.S. 2017
Widespread implementation of a low-cost telehealth service in the delivery of antenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time-series analysis. Palmer Kirsten R, Tanner Michael, Davies-Tuck Miranda, Rindt Andrea, Papacostas Kerrie, Giles Michelle L, Brown Kate, Diamandis Helen, Fradkin Rebecca, Stewart Alice E, Rolnik Daniel L, Stripp Andrew, Wallace Euan M, Mol Ben W, Hodges Ryan J 2021

Downloadable Data Content

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