Recently Published Projects

Published on August 22, 2022
Systematic Review on Opioid Treatments for Chronic Pain - Surveillance Updates
14 Citations • 10 Key Questions • 14 Extraction Forms
Project created on July 28, 2022
Last updated on August 04, 2022
Objectives: Objectives. To identify new evidence published after the 2020 AHRQ review, Opioid Treatments for Chronic Pain (available: https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/opioids-chronic-pain/research). Data sources. Ovid® MEDLINE®, : Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & In-Data-Review Citations, Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of PrintPsycINFO®, Embase®, the Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS® databases, reference lists of included studies were searched to March 16, 2022. Review methods. As in the original review, one investigator screened citations identified through searches for eligibility for full-text review. In addition, a second investigator utilized a machine learning classifier to assist in the screening. The machine learning classifier screened all citations; the second investigator reviewed all studies that the machine learning classifier did not classify as very low probability of inclusion. The machine learning classifier was previously shown to have 100 percent recall for identifying eligible studies in update searches for this review. Any citation identified as potentially eligible by either of the two investigators underwent full-text review to determine final eligibility. We utilized the same methods for data abstraction and quality assessment as for the original report. Results. (See Update Reports) Conclusions. Two placebo-controlled trials identified for Surveillance Report 3 were consistent with the findings of the original report with regard to an association between opioids and small improvements in short-term pain and function and increased risk of harms. Updated meta-analyses based on placebo-controlled trials provided estimates very similar to the original report. One new trial provided low strength of evidence that TENS may be associated with improved short-term pain and function and decreased adverse events versus placebo; no studies evaluating this comparison were in the original report. One observational study identified for Surveillance Report 3 found no differences between involuntary or voluntary tapering versus no tapering in pain or function, but was rated poor quality and provided insufficient evidence to inform new conclusions on the effects of tapering on these outcomes, which had no prior studies. Surveillance Report 3 builds on Surveillance Reports 1 and 2, which identified new studies on short-term benefits and harms, long-term benefits and harms, risk mitigation strategies, dose-dependent risks of opioids, and management of opioid use disorder; for all of these areas, findings with the addition of studies identified in this surveillance report were consistent with the original report.
Published on August 22, 2022
Systematic Review on Nonopioid Pharmacologic Treatments for Chronic Pain
17 Citations • 5 Key Questions • 17 Extraction Forms
Project created on April 15, 2022
Last updated on July 26, 2022
Objectives: Scope The scope and eligibility criteria established at the time of the original report1 were utilized for this surveillance report; no changes were made. The report focused on use of nonopioids in patients for chronic pain management and addressed the following Key Questions: Key Question 1a. In patients with chronic pain, what is the effectiveness of nonopioid pharmacologic agents versus placebo for outcomes related to pain, function, and quality of life after short-term treatment duration (3 to <6 months), intermediate-term treatment duration (6 to <12 months), and long-term treatment duration (≥12 months)? Key Question 1b. In patients with chronic pain, what is the comparative effectiveness of nonopioid pharmacologic agents compared to other nonopioid pharmacologic agents for outcomes related to pain, function, and quality of life after short-term treatment duration (3 to <6 months), intermediate-term treatment duration (6 to <12 months), and long-term treatment duration (≥12 months)? Key Question 1c. How does effectiveness or comparative effectiveness vary depending on: (1) the specific type or cause of pain, (2) patient demographics, (3) patient comorbidities, (4) dose of medication used, (5) duration of treatment, and (6) dose titration, including tapering? Key Question 2a. In patients with chronic pain, what are the risks of nonopioid pharmacologic agents for harms including overdose, misuse, dependence, substance use disorder, withdrawals due to adverse events, and serious adverse events (including falls, fractures, motor vehicle accidents), and specific adverse events according to drug class? Key Question 2b. How do harms vary depending on: (1) the specific type or cause of pain, (2) patient demographics, (3) patient comorbidities, (4) dose of medication used, (5) duration of treatment, and (6) dose titration, including tapering? The protocol is available on the AHRQ website (https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/topics/nonopioid-chronic-pain/protocol) and on the PROSPERO systematic reviews registry (CRD42019134249).
Published on June 27, 2022
Acute Pain Updates
20 Citations • 8 Key Questions • 20 Extraction Forms
Project created on May 04, 2022
Last updated on June 22, 2022
Objectives: Data for three surveillance reports for the 2020 report Treatments for Acute Pain: A Systematic Review (https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/treatments-acute-pain/research). The 2020 report addressed benefits and harms of opioid, nonopioid pharmacologic, and nonpharmacologic treatments for specific types of acute pain (low back pain, neck pain, other musculoskeletal pain, neuropathic pain, postoperative pain [excluding inpatient management of pain after major surgical procedures], dental pain, pain due to kidney stones, and pain due to sickle cell disease). Given the clinical and public health importance of this topic, it is important to identify new evidence that could impact practice or policy. The purpose of this update was to identify new evidence published since the original 2020 report, and to determine how the new evidence impacts the findings of the original 2020 report.
Published on June 27, 2022
Breast cancer and cardiovascular outcomes
142 Citations • 2 Key Questions • 142 Extraction Forms
Project created on January 29, 2022
Last updated on May 28, 2022
Objectives: Q1: What is the risk for the development of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with breast cancer compared to those in the general population? Q2: What are the incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases among patients diagnosed with breast cancer?
Published on May 24, 2022
Screening for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Adults: An Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
59 Citations • 5 Key Questions • 59 Extraction Forms
Project created on May 18, 2022
Last updated on May 24, 2022
Objectives: